Behavior Change Theories that can be Applied
Injury Prevention and Control
(See: Gielen, AC, Sleet, DA, DiClementi,
RJ (Eds). Injury and Violence Prevention: Behavioral Science Theories,
Methods, and Applications. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006)
While we realize that many of the resources
listed do not consist of injury or violence topics, they are included
to demonstrate the use of different theories and to show conceptual
Effective injury and violence prevention programs
are grounded in or based on tested theories and models used in behavioral
and social sciences. The theories and models most often used in
these programs are highlighted below, along with articles and resources
describing the specific benefits. While we realize that many of
the resources listed do not consist of injury or violence topics,
they are included to demonstrate the use of different theories and
to show conceptual frameworks. For additional literature on theories
used in unintentional injury prevention, see the CDC
Behavioral Science / Injury Bibliography (Sleet DA & Hopkins,
This theory focuses on the community's strengths. Key
concepts are: empowerment, critical consciousness, community capacity,
issue selection, and participation and relevance.
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of Innovations Theory
This theory concentrates on the process in which
a new idea is disseminated throughout a society. Key components
are: innovations, communication channels, time to reach members,
and social networks.
of an Efficacious Antenatal Smoking Cessation Program in Public
Hospitals in Australia: A Randomized Control Trial
Lowe, JB, Balanda, KP, Stanton, WR, Del Mar, C, O'Connor,
Health Education & Behavior, October 2002: Vol. 29,
No. 5, 608-619.
/ Social Ecological Model
These models focus on multi-level approaches as
to how an individual's behavior may be affected by the surrounding
environmental and sociological influences.
Community Empowerment: An Illustration of a Six-Step Process
Yoo, S, Weed, NE, Lempa, ML, Mbondo, M, Shada, RE, Goodman, RM
Health Promotion Practice, July 2004: Vol. 5, No. 3,
- Ecological Models for the Prevention
of Unintentional Injury
Allegrante, JP, Marks, R, Hanson, DW. In Gielen, A, Sleet,
DA, Diclemente, R (Eds). Injury and Violence Prevention: Behavioral
Science Theories, Methods, and Applications. San Francisco: Jossey
Bass, 2006 (in press)
Multilevel, Multisource Needs Assessment Data for Planning Community
Levy, SR, Anderson, EE, Issel, LM, Willis, MA, Dancy,
BL, Jacobson, KM, Fleming, SG, Copper, ES, Barrios, NM, Sciammarella,
E, Ochoa, M, and Hebert-Berine, J
Health Promotion Practice,January 2004: Vol. 5, No. 1,
Parallel Processing Model
This fear appeal theory addresses how people process
and respond to messages, making them more aware that they could
be at risk. Planners must also provide a method of overcoming
the Extended Parallel Processing Model to Prevent Noise-Induced
Hearing Loss Among Coal Miners in Appalachia
Murray-Johnson, L, Witte, K, Patel, D, Orrego, V, Zuckerman,
C, Maxfield, A, Thimons, E
Health Education & Behavior, December 2004: Vol.
31, No. 6, 741-755.
This model looks at perceived threat of disease
and net benefit of changing behavior to determine if and why a person
will adopt a behavior change.
- The Health Belief Model: A Decade Later
Janz, N K, Becker, M.A
Health Education Quarterly, 1984: 11, 1-47.
A combination of health education and specific
interventions to promote change to healthy lifestyles. Incorporates
ways to enhance public awareness of health issues.
- Drinking, Driving and Health Promotion
Sleet, DA, Wagenaar, A, Waller, P (Eds).
Health Education Quarterly (Theme Issue), Fall 1989:
Vol. 16, No. 3.
- Health Promotion Research Approaches
to the Prevention of Injuries and Violence [Editorial]
Liller, KD, Sleet, DA
American Journal of Health Behavior, 2004: Vol. 28 (Suppl
- Increasing the Use of Bicycle Helmets:
Lessons from Behavioral Science
Thompson, N, Sleet, DA, Sacks, J
Patient Education and Counseling, 2002: Vol. 46, No.
- Preventing Alcohol-Related Traffic
Injury: A Health Promotion Approach
Howat, P, Sleet, DA, Elder, R, Maycock, B.
Traffic Injury Prevention, 2004: Vol. 5, No. 3, 208-219.
- Using Behavioral Science to Improve
Fire Escape Behaviors in Response to a Smoke Alarm
Thompson, NJ, Waterman, MB, Sleet, DA.
Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 2004: Vol. 25,
No. 2, 179-188.
This section highlights models that were combined
specifically to address injury prevention. Ex. Haddon Matrix
with PRECEDE framework; and the Public Health model with the Social-Ecological
- Health Education and Injury Control:
Health Education Quarterly, Summer 1992: Vol. 19, No.
2, 203- 218.
- Introduction: Back to the Future—Revisiting
Haddon's Conceptualization of Injury of Epidemiology and Prevention
Epidemiologic Reviews, 2003: Vol. 25, 60-64.
- Integrating Behavioral and Social Sciences
With Public Health
N. Schneiderman, M.A. Speers, J.M. Silva, H. Tomes, &
J.H. Gentry (Eds). 2001, Washington, DC: American Psychological
- Chapter 5- Lorion, R.P. Exposure
to Urban Violence: Shifting from an Individual to an Ecological
Perspective, pp. 97- 113.
- Chapter 6- Cook, S.L. & Koss, M.P.
Action Research: Informing Interventions in Male Violence
Against Women, pp. 115- 139.
- Chapter 10- Gielen, A.C. & Girasek,
D.C. (2001). Integrating perspectives on the prevention of
unintentional injuries. (pp. 203-227).
/ PROCEED Model
This planning and evaluation model addresses social,
epidemiological, behavioral & environmental, educational &
ecological, and administrative & policy assessments, as well
as implementation and process, impact and outcome evaluation.
- To view this planning model, visit the website
of one of the framework's creators—Dr.
This planning model consists of four steps: define
the problem, identify the risk, develop and test prevention strategies,
and disseminate the effective interventions.
- An Overview of the National Center
for Injury Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control
Sleet, DA, Bonzo, S, Branche C.
Injury Prevention, December 1998: Vol. 4, No. 4, 308-312.
of Multiple Behavior Change Theories
This section provides a general overview of several
behavior change theories that are often used by health educators.
- Injury and Violence Prevention: Behavioral
Science Theories, Methods, and Applications
Gielen, AC, Sleet, DA, DiClementi, RJ (Eds). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass,
- Application of Behavior—Change
Theories and Methods to Injury Prevention
Gielen, AC, Sleet, DA
Epidemiologic Reviews, 2003: Vol. 25, 65-76.
- Behavioral and Social Sciences Theories
and Models: Are they used in Unintentional Injury Prevention Research?
Triffiletti, LB, Gielen, AC, Sleet, DA, Hopkins, K.
Health Education Research, June 2005: Vol. 20, No. 3,
- Developing Injury Interventions: the
role of behavioral science
Sleet, DA, Gielen, AC
In McClure, R, Stevenson, M, McEvoy, S (Eds). The Scientific Basis
of Injury Prevention and Control. Victoria, Australia: IP Communications,
pp. 214-232, 2004.
- Emerging Theories in Health Promotion
Practice and Research: Strategies for Improving Public Health
Ralph J. DiClemente, Richard A. Crosby, Michelle C. Kegler (Eds.)
(2002). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Health Behavior and Health Education:
Theory, Research and Practice (3rd edition)
Karen Glanz, Barbara K. Rimer, Frances Marcus Lewis (Eds.) (2002).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
This theory centers on the idea that personal
factors, environment and behavior all influence one another.
Self efficacy, observational learning, reinforcements and expectations
are some of the key concepts.
Use of Focus Groups to Plan Poison Prevention Education Programs
for Low-Income Populations
Schwartz, L, Howland, M, Mercurio-Zappala, M, Hoffman,
Health Promotion Practice, July 2003: Vol. 4, No. 3,
of Reasoned Action / Theory of Planned Behavior
These theories focus on intentions to perform
a behavior based on attitudes toward the behavior and social acceptance
of a behavior (TRA) and perceived behavioral control (TPB).
Differences in Young Adults' Beliefs About Sunscreen Use
Abroms, L, Jorgensen, CM, Southwell, BG, Geller, AC, Emmons, KM
Health Education & Behavior, February 2003, Vol.
30 (1), 29-43.
Legislators' Beliefs About Legislation That Restricts Youth Access
to Tobacco Products
Gottlieb, NH, Goldstein, AO, Flynn, BS, Cohen, JE, Bauman,
KE, Solomon, LJ, Munger, MC, Dana, GS, McMorris, LE
Health Education & Behavior, April 2003: Vol. 30,
No. 2, 209-224.
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Model (Stages of Change)
This model helps program planners to tailor interventions
based on a person's stage of readiness to change: Precontemplation,
contemplation, preparation, action, or maintenance.
of the Transtheoretical Model to Health Education for Older
Lach, HW, Everard, KM, Highstein, G, Brownson, CA
Health Promotion Practice, January 2004: Vol. 5, No.
of the Transtheoretical Model for HIV Prevention in a Facility-Based
and a Community-Level Behavioral Intervention Research Study
Cabral, RJ, Cotton, D, Semaan, S, Gielen, AC
Health Promotion Practice, April 2004: Vol. 5, No. 2,
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