2019 Case Study Competition

The Heath Issue:

In the United States, there were an estimated 266,120 new cases of breast cancer and 40,920 deaths from breast cancer among women in 2018.1 While non-modifiable risk factors for breast cancer include age, a family history of breast cancer, and having the BRCA1 or BRCA 2 genes, modifiable risk factors include obesity, having a sedentary lifestyle, and taking hormones with estrogen and progesterone.2 Early detection of breast cancer is critical, as the five-year survival rate for women with early stages of breast cancer (Stage 0 or Stage 1) is close to 100 percent, whereas the five-year survival rate for a woman diagnosed with a more advanced stage of cancer (Stage 4) is roughly 22 percent.3 Consequently, annual mammograms are recommended for women ages 45 to 54 who have an average risk of breast cancer.4

However, while breast cancer screening increases the five-year survival rate, many American women (44%) still do not get regular mammograms.5 Women reported being younger than 60 years of age, health insurance6,7 an annual family income of less than $40,000 and a perception of pain as barriers to having mammography.6 Working a higher number of hours per week may also decrease the likelihood of having mammograms.8 Distance to the nearest mammogram facility may also serve as a barrier to screening, as women who had a longer distance to travel to the nearest facility were significantly more likely to miss having mammograms.9 Controlling for age, race, and literacy, rural women were significantly less likely than urban women to avoid having a mammogram because of a fear of abnormal results; however, they were significantly more likely than urban women to agree that the perceived level of discomfort from a mammography as a barrier to having a mammography.10 In several studies, Black women were more likely than White women to have had recent mammograms.7,11

2019 Case Study Competition

Presented in Salt Lake City, Utah.